Physical Education Department Leadership and Effectiveness of Sports Facilities Management in Taiwan

Date of Degree


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Annette E. Craven


Judith E. Beauford


Denise J. Doyle


David M. Jurenovich


Jessica C. Kimmel


Effective leadership behaviors appear especially when the organization, through change, innovates new procedures. The Physical Education Departments of Taiwanese universities are facing a change in their situation after moving from the second administrative level to the first administrative level in the university. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of leadership style and effectiveness of sports facilities management in Physical Education Departments of Taiwanese universities. This study used a mixed methodology to examine the leadership behaviors and effectiveness of sports facilities management. Fifty-seven Taiwanese universities were asked to participate in this study: 27 public universities and 30 universities. One director self-rating and 5 follower evaluations were included for each school in the survey data collection. Six followers who were determined to have worked with a transformational director after primary quantitative survey analyses were selected using purposive sampling to participate in a follow-up interview from different geographic locations in Taiwan. The response rate from directors was 54% (31 out of 57 universities) for evaluation on Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X leader form) and Sports Facilities Management Questionnaire (SFMQ). The response rate from followers was 6 8 % (39 out o f 57 universities) for evaluation on MLQ-5X (rater form), Transformational Leadership Questionnaire (TFLQ), Transactional Leadership Questionnaire (TSLQ), SFMQ, and open-ended questions. The Spearman rank correlation was used to test the relationship between leadership styles and effectiveness o f sports facilities management for the quantitative survey data. The open-ended questions and interviews of qualitative data analyses encompassed a content analysis strategy of analysis. The results of this study are that there are higher frequencies of transformational leadership behaviors than transactional or laissez-faire leadership behaviors exhibited in the current Physical Education Departments of Taiwanese universities. According to the MLQ-5X results, both transformational and transactional leadership styles have a significant positive correlation with sports facilities management. While transactional leadership behaviors are immediately effective for short-term goals, transformational leadership behaviors have long-term positive effects. Motivation, such as praise and reward, are necessary for followers when the Physical Education Department is initially facing social environment need and educational policy change.

This document is currently not available here.