Date of Degree


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Alfredo Ortiz


Markus Seyfried


María José Pesce Cutri


The purpose of this dissertation was to identify and understand the factors that affect the World Anti-Doping Code compliance of the National Anti-Doping Organizations in Peru and Bolivia. By identifying and understanding these factors, this research may provide useful information on how to strengthen compliance and development strategies. This dissertation used a qualitative basic interpretive design with a sample of anti-doping experts from Peru, Bolivia, and the World Anti-Doping Agency, and a comprehensive document review process. Through coding and thematic analysis of the in-depth interview data and the development of a findings model, three main findings were identified as factors that affect compliance: (1) inadequate anti-doping legislation, resources, and structure; (2) authorities’ limited support and understanding of anti-doping and compliance; and (3) limited understanding of the cultural context, the value of relations, and the potential benefits of sanctions. The data analyzed suggested that the factors that affect compliance are generally heterogenous and context-specific, indicating that the best way to address them requires the implementation of context-based compliance and development strategies. Results indicate that compliance strategy may be strengthened by using different responsive regulatory tactics based on cultural differences and compliance motivations of the World Anti-Doping Code signatories.