A Correlational Study Between Junior High School Teacher Empowerment and Job Satisfaction in Kaohsiung Area of Taiwan

Date of Degree


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Absael Antelo


Nancy I. Robbins


Dorothy Ettling


Susan Hall


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between junior high school teachers’ empowerment and job satisfaction in the Kaohsiung area of Taiwan using surveys and a correlation methodology. The School Participant Empowerment Scale (SPES) measured teacher perceived empowerment, the Teacher Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (TJSQ) measured teacher job satisfaction, and the demographic survey included age, educational background, school size, and gender. Teacher empowerment was the independent variable while teacher job satisfaction and some aspects of the demographic survey served as dependent variables in this study. SPES measured six different dimensions o f empowerment: Decision-making, professional growth, status, self-efficacy, autonomy, and impact, along with an overall total. TJSQ measured nine factors of satisfaction: Supervision, colleagues, working conditions, pay, responsibility, work itself, advancement, security and recognition with an overall total. Of the 450 survey questionnaires distributed to junior high school teachers, 426 were returned and 410 of them were valid. The results were calculated using quantitative descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, including the values of means, variances, standard deviations, analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures, t-tests and Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Significant correlations were found between total teacher empowerment and total teacher job satisfaction (r = .508). However, no correlation was found between the teacher job satisfaction factor of security and the three teacher empowerment dimensions of professional growth, status, and autonomy. There was also no correlation found between the teacher job satisfaction factor of recognition and the three teacher empowerment dimensions of decision-making, self-efficacy and impact. The results showed significant differences in the demographic variables of educational background and gender with regards to teacher empowerment. However, the demographic variables of school size, educational background, and gender showed no significant differences with regards to teacher job satisfaction.

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