The Possible Relationship Between Leadership Style and Word-Spirit Orientation of Leaders in Protestant and Pentecostal Christian Churches in Taipei, Taiwan

Date of Degree


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Gilberto M. Hinojosa


Nancy Robbins


Dorothy Ettling


Judy Beauford


The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the leadership style and the Word-Spirit orientation of leaders in Protestant and Pentecostal Christian churches in Taipei, Taiwan. The survey instruments included a demographics survey, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), and the Word-Spirit Orientation Scale (WSOS). Church leaders’ demographics served as the independent variables and were grouped into Gender, Age, National Origin, Size of Congregation, Job Title, Years of Working in Current Church, Denominational Affiliation, and Doctrinal Affiliation. The MLQ was used to measure church leaders’ Transformational, Transactional Leadership style and the outcomes of church leaders’ transformational and transactional leadership style. Word-Spirit Orientation Scale (WSOS) was used to measure church leaders’ Word-Spirit orientation. There were 173 complete responses. The results were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics: means, frequencies, percentages, standard deviations, Cronbach alpha coefficients, Pearson correlation, Levene test, one sample t test, and independent sample t test, Welch test, one way ANOVA, and Bonferroni Post Hoc tests, computed by SPSS version 11.5 statistical computer program with significance level of .05 or lower. The results show that there is evidence of a relationship between Word-Spirit orientation and Passive-Avoidant Leadership style (r = -.113, p < .05). The results also generated evidence of a weak negative correlation between Idealized Influence (Attributes) and Word-Spirit orientation (r = -.151 ,P < .05) and a weak negative correlation between Management by Exception (Passive) and Word-Spirit orientation (r = -.212, p < .05). The results indicate that there is a significant difference in Word-Spirit orientation between leaders who have worked five years and under at their current church and those who have worked 6 to 15 years at their current church. Moreover, there is a significant difference in Transformational Leadership style between those whose job titles are Senior Pastor, and Pastor as well as between Senior Pastor and Others.

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