A Study of University Physical Education Department Director Leadership Behavior and Physical Education Teacher Job Satisfaction in Northern Taiwan

Date of Degree


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Nancy Robbins


Bill Carleton


Gilberto M. Hinojosa


Timothy Henrich


The purpose of this research was to assess the relationship between physical education department directors’ leadership behavior and physical education teachers’ job satisfaction in 35 selected physical education departments of universities situated in northern Taiwan. The research also used demographic data related to gender, age, marital status, years of teaching at the institution, highest education level, monthly salary, and teaching rank to determine the difference of physical education teachers’ overall job satisfaction between variables. The survey instruments included the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire, XII (LBDQ, XII), which was utilized to measure perceived physical education directors’ leadership behavior, and the Teacher Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (TJSQ), which was employed to measure teachers’ job satisfaction. Teacher job satisfaction consisted of the dimensions of supervision, colleagues, working conditions, pay, responsibility, work itself, advancement, security, and recognition. Survey packages containing the LBDQ, the TJSQ, and demographic questionnaires, were mailed to full-time teachers at 35 universities in northern Taiwan, resulting in 324 returned surveys packets (67%) of which 309 were valid. Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques, including means, frequencies, percentages, standard deviations, Cronbach alpha coefficients, ANOVA, Scheffe’s test, and Pearson product-moment were used for analysis using SPSS. The results indicate that the directors’ leadership behaviors of high consideration and high initiating structure are related to high teacher job satisfaction. There was a relationship between total teachers’ job satisfaction and different dimensions of directors’ leadership behavior, and between different dimensions of teachers’ job satisfaction and different dimensions of directors’ leadership behavior. There were significant differences in total teachers’ job satisfaction and the dimensions of supervision, working conditions, and advancement based on different directors’ leadership behaviors. Significant mean differences in total teachers’ job satisfaction based on the teacher’s gender, age, highest education level, teaching rank, and monthly salary, and significant differences in the mean differences appeared in most dimensions of teachers’ job satisfaction based on teacher’s age, marital status, highest education level, teaching years at the institution, and monthly salary.

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